Cause: Inadequate stability, blood flow, or both to the fractured bone OR bone breakage from a high-energy injury may not heal properly
Risk Factors of non-union: Older age, smoking, tobacco addiction, diabetes, low vitamin D, poor nutrition, hypothyroidism, certain medication, infection and open or compound fractures.
Symptoms: Long term pain that continues to occur months or years after the fracture. This pain can be constant or occurs only when the broken arm or leg is used.
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