Hip Joint Replacement

Hip replacement surgery is performed in cases of severe damage of the hip joint and involves replacement of the degenerated components of the hip joint with a synthetic implant to renew stability and function. This is done to repair the damaged part of hip joint that is the main source of pain and disability for the patient.

hip joint replacement

Total hip replacement surgery involves replacement of both the thigh bone (femur) and the socket with synthetic implant materials. It is a highly successful surgery that has following advantages:

  • Renewed stability and function

  • Increases joint mobility

  • Relieves pain

  • Improves working of hip joint

  • Restores normal walking and other movements

  • Incredibly improves quality of life of the patients

Indications for hip joint replacement

As in almost all the cases of joint replacement, the main reason for hip joint replacement too is to relieve severe pain that is limiting the daily activities of the patient. Surgeon recommends hip joint replacement in following conditions:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Traumatic arthritis

  • Osteoarthritis

  • Dislocation or fractures of thigh bone

  • Hip joint tumors

  • Hip joint pain and stiffness that disturbs night sleep and limits or prevents the normal activities like bathing, preparing meals, doing household chores, and walking

  • Failure of all conservative treatment options to get relief from pain

Hip Joint Replacement Procedure

The procedure of hip replacement is performed under general or regional anaesthesia and involves removal of the degenerated cartilage and bone from the hip joint and its replacement with prosthetics. Either the hip socket (acetabulum) or upper end of the thigh bone (femoral bone) or both may be replaced during surgery.

The parts of new hip joint include the following:

  • A socket made up of strong metal

  • A liner made of plastic or ceramic fits inside the socket to allow smooth movement of the hip

  • A metal or ceramic ball replaces the round head (top) of thigh bone

  • A metal stem is attached to the thigh bone to make the joint more stable

Types of joint replacement depending upon prosthesis

The choice of prosthesis components depend upon patient’s physiology, the type of surgery being done, and the surgeon’s preference. It may include:

  • Cemented joint prosthesis uses fast-drying bone cement to help affix it to the bone. The procedure performed is called cemented total hip replacement.

  • Uncemented joint prosthesis, sometimes called a press-fit prosthesis, is specially textured to allow the bone to grow onto it and adhere to it over time. The procedure performed is called uncemented total hip replacement.

  • Hybrid hip replacement uses both cement less ( Acetabulum cup) and cemented (femoral stem ) components in prosthesis.

Prognosis of Hip Joint Replacement

Hip joint replacement is a highly successful surgery that offers excellent results and takes away most of the pain and stiffness of the joint. In cases of younger patients, replaced joint may loosen or wear & tear with time. This can happen after as long as 15 – 20 years and may need a second replacement.