Shoulder joint & its instability
The shoulder is the most flexible joint in the body that allows various activities like throwing balls, lifting heavy objects and reaching almost anywhere in any direction. It is made up of bony and soft tissues that act as joint stabilizers. Although these joint stabilizers keep the joint intact but some activities like injury due to fall or running into something can make it unstable. This can result into dislocation or subluxation of the joint and may predispose the shoulder to arthritis.
Shoulder stabilization is necessary to stabilize the shoulder and prevent its disruption. The surgical procedure can be arthroscopic or open depending upon the need of the patient and condition of the shoulder. The most commonly performed surgical procedures that can stabilize the shoulder include the following:
Capsular shift: It is the most commonly performed procedure to tighten the joint capsule, including the ligaments using an arthroscope. This will stabilize the shoulder just like a tailor tucks loose fabric by overlapping and sewing the two parts.
Labral repair (Bankart repair): This is also an arthroscopic procedure that is performed to repair or debride a tear of the labrum.Repair is done by suturing of a large tear to reattach the labrum to the socket and debridement is done to remove the frayed edges and any loose parts that get caught during movement of shoulder joint.
Open procedure: This is done in cases where bone of the socket is involved in the injury and repair is performed through longer incision on the front of the shoulder.
Latarjet procedure: This procedure is performed as an open procedure when there is bone loss from the socket due to repeated dislocations. It involves removal ofa small piece of bone ( Coracoid) from another part of the shoulder and its placement into the worn away area of the shoulder socket using screws. This is called a bone graft.