Sports medicine or sport and exercise medicine (SEM) is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness of the sports persons. It also includes treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
Common sports injuries
A sport is an activity that involves maximum physical activity and requires the best physical fitness. But sometimes due to overstretching, overuse or weak muscles and ligaments, following injuries may occur to the sports person:
- Muscle Cramps
- ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Sprains
- ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Tears
- Ankle Sprain
- Shin Splints
- Muscle Strains
- Soft tissue injury
Generalized symptoms of sports injury
- A sudden tight & intense pain in area of the body
- Muscle lock due to spasm
- Muscle cramps
- Inability to move the part properly
- Loss of function
- Local inflammation
Key components of effective injury management
Sports injury can be managed effectively by the following key components.
- Injury prevention
- Injury identification and treatment
- Injury rehabilitation
Treatment of sports injury
Treatment for any kind of sports injury depends upon factors like the severity of the injury and the part of the body affected.
Some general treatments that may be helpful for sports injury are:
- Pain relief: Pain can be reduced or eliminated by painkillers.
- Immobilization: Stabilizing the affected part by slings, splints and casts can reduce the damage to reduce pain, muscle swelling and muscle spasm.
- Physiotherapy: Special techniques such as manipulation and exercises can improve long-term injury, range of motion, strengthen the surrounding muscles, and return the normal function of the injured area.
- Corticosteroid injections: In case of severe or persistent pain & inflammation, a corticosteroid injection is recommended.
- Surgery and procedures: Although some injuries can be managed by conservative treatment and don’t require surgery, very severe injuries such as badly broken bones may require corrective surgery to fix the bones with wires, plates, screws or rods.