Avascular necrosis is the death of bone tissue (femoral head) in the hip due to a lack of blood supply. This can ultimately lead to the destruction of the hip joint and arthritis. Although avascular necrosis can occur in any bone, hip joint is the most commonly affected by it.
Causes of Avascular Necrosis of Hip joint
It occurs due to disrupted blood supply to the femoral head due to any of the following:
Sickle cell disorder
Decreased hemoglobin or oxygen-carrying component of blood
Excessive and long-term Alcohol Intake
Symptoms of Avascular Necrosis of Hip Joint
Avascular Necrosis/Osteonecrosis develops in stages and may take several months to over a year to reach the last stage.
It causes following symptoms:
The first symptom is hip pain
Hip pain can sometimes be followed by a dull ache or throbbing pain in the groin or buttock area
Difficulty standing and balancing weight on the affected hip
Painful movement of the hip joint
Treatment of Avascular Necrosis of Hip Joint:
Core decompression: In this procedure, the surgeon removes part of the inner layer of the bone affected. Upon the successful procedure, the patient will feel a reduction in pain and the extra space inside the bone triggers the production of healthy bone tissue and new blood vessels.
Bone transplant (graft): Bone transplant procedure help strengthen the area of bone affected by avascular necrosis. During this procedure, a graft i.e. A section of healthy bone is taken from another part of the body. This ensures quicker healing and bone tissue adaptation.
Bone reshaping (osteotomy): A wedge of bone is removed above or below a weight-bearing joint in this case Hip joint, to help shift weight off the damaged bone.
Hip Joint replacement: If the affected hip bone has collapsed or other treatments aren’t helping, surgery can replace the damaged parts of the joint with plastic or metal parts through total hip replacement surgery.
Regenerative medicine treatment: If the condition is caught early, a bone marrow aspirate and concentration might help in the treatment of avascular necrosis. During this surgery, the surgeon removes a sample of dead hipbone and inserts stem cells taken from bone marrow in its place. This might allow new bone to grow. However, more research and study are needed as the finding is still new.
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